### Organic formulation. Cyclic Hydrocarbons.

ORGANIC FORMALATION THEORY. Cyclic hydrocarbons. They are closed-chain hydrocarbons. Depending on whether or not they have unsaturations, they are classified as: Saturated monocyclic hydrocarbons (cycloalkanes). Unsaturated monocyclic hydrocarbons (cycloalkenes and cycloalkynes) Saturated monocyclic hydrocarbons. The […]

### Binomials theory

POLINOMIALS A binomial is a polynomial consists of two monomials separated by a plus (+) or a minus (-) sign. Binomials operations are: 1.- Binomial squared: is equal to the square of the first […]

### Organic formulation. Alkynes.

Organic Formulation Theory Hydrocarbons with triple bonds, Acetylenes or Alkynes They are hydrocarbons having one or more triple bonds between carbon atoms. The general formula for compounds with a triple single bond, is CnH2n-2. Alkynes […]

### Variations theory

Variations is to group elements, when it matters the order, we do not take all the items and these can be repeated or not. Thus the variations may be: – Variations without repetition of […]

### Permutations Theory

Permutations are multiplicative events where the number of possibilities is decreasing and whether it is important the order of a permutation, it is an arrangement of a set of objects in a defined order. The […]

### Organic formulation. Alkenes

Organic Formulation Theory Hydrocarbons with double bonds, Olefins or Alkenes. They are hydrocarbons having one or more double bonds between the carbon atoms. The general formula with a single double bond is CnH2n. Alkenes with […]

### Organic formulation. Alkanes.

Organic Formulation Theory Saturated hydrocarbons, paraffins or alkanes They are called saturated hydrocarbons or alkanes all compounds made of carbon and hydrogen, which are of open-chain and have single bonds. Straight-chain alkanes. They correspond […]

### Divisibility theory

Divisibility is the property of an integer number to be divided by another, resulting an integer number. Where a and b, two integers numbers, we will say that “a” is a multiple of “b” if […]

### Combined Operations theory

We call Combined Operations to those in which several arithmetic operations appear to be solved. To get the right result you need to follow some rules and take into account the priority between different operations. […]

### Capacitance theory

Capacitance is the ability of a body to store charge in an electric field. Capacitance is also a measure of the amount of electric potential energy stored (or separated) for a given electric potential. A […]

### Direct-current theory

When it is connected a continuous conductive path, like a wire with a battery terminal, we obtain an electric circuit. The device which receives charging from a battery is not always a wire, it can […]

### Radicals theory

A radical is an expression with the form: Wherein n Є N and a Є R; provided that when a is negative, n must be odd. n=index; a=radicand; m=exponent. A radical can be expressed in […]

### Chemical kinetics theory

Chemical kinetics studies the speed of chemical processes and determines the factors which influence on it. It aims is to find mathematical expression that relates the speed of a chemical reaction with the various factors […]

### VAN DER WAALS FORCES

Such forces, although they don’t form a chemical bond theirselves, they are responsible for the attraction between neutral and saturated molecules, which result in the condensed states (liquid and solid) of these substances. The Van […]

### Logarithms Theory

Definition of logarithm: Be a positive real number non-zero and different to 1, and A another positive and non-zero number. It is called the logarithm of the number A in the base a, the exponent […]

### Fractions theory

Fraction concept A fraction is the quotient of two integers a and b, which is represented as follows: b -> denominator, indicates the number of parties that has been split the unit. a -> numerator, […]

### Periodic System Theory

The current Periodic Table is based on the one which was proposed by Mendeleiev with the inherent corrections to Moseley’s law, as it is said, used as sort order atomic number. It consists in eighteen […]

### Rotation theory

A rotation is a circular movement of an object around a center (or point) of rotation. A three-dimensional object rotates always around an imaginary line called a rotation axis. A rotation of a body is […]

### MATRICES OPERATIONS THEORY

Matrices additions and subtractions theory The sum of two matrices (Aij), (Bij) of the same dimension, is another matrix (Rij) of the same dimension and with generic term sij=aij+bij. Therefore, to be able […]

### HYDROGEN BOND THEORY

HYDROGEN BOND Many hydrogenated compounds have properties some abnormal that can be interpreted by assuming that amongst its molecules is formed a special type of link, characteristic of hydrogen atoms, called as hydrogen bond, […]

### Oscillations theory

Oscillation is the repetitive variation, disturbance or fluctuation over the time measure about a central value or system. A particle oscillates periodically when it moves relative to its equilibrium position Simple harmonic motion is a […]

### Calculate the inverse of a matrix II

Matrix Inverse theory Definition method. If the product between two matrices is the identity matrix, then we say that the matrices are “inverse”; because by multiplying them we obtain the neutral element for the product […]

### Statics theory

Statics is the branch of mechanics that studies the bodies in condition of balance submitted to the action of forces. Strength is the action that one has on something, either by pulling or pushing. The […]

### Theory about Scientific Notation

Scientific notation helps us to express in an easier way those numerical quantities that are too large or, conversely, too small. It is also known as Exponential Notation and it can be defined as the […]

### Covalent bond theory

COVALENT BOND (nonmetal-nonmetal): There are many molecules whose formation can not be explained by the ionic bond, the simplest cases are molecules which are composed of identical atoms, such as H2, Cl2, etc. In […]

### Dynamics theory

Dynamics is the part of physics that describes the time evolution of a physical system in relation to the causes of changes in physical and/or movement state. Dynamics’ aim is to describe factors that may […]

### Stoichiometry theory

Stoichiometry. Lavoisier’s law of mass conservation: The total mass of the substances involved in chemical transformation remains constant and therefore the sum of the masses of the reactants must be equal to the sum of […]

### Powers theory

Multiplication of powers with the same base, add exponents Division of powers with the same base, subtract the exponents Power of a power, it’s the same base and multiplied the exponents If the exponent is […]

### Chemical calculations theory. Dissolutions

Dissolutions are homogeneous mixtures resulting from the interposition of atoms, molecules or ions from two or more substances, called components, which are involved in varying proportions. WAYS TO EXPRESS THE CONCENTRATION OF DISSOLUTIONS IN […]

### Chemical bond metallic theory

METALLIC BOND (metal-metal): This type of bond is given in all pure metals and most alloys. In a metal, atoms are very close to each other forming what is called a “compact packaging”; each atom […]

### Kinematics theory

Kinematics theory Kinematics is the branch of classical mechanics that describes the motion of bodies (objects) and systems (groups of objects) without consideration of the forces that cause the motion When we study the […]

### Chemical calculations theory. States of matter aggregation.

The matter is present in the nature in three different states of aggregation: solid, liquid and gas. Solids have fixed shape and volume. Liquids have fixed volume, but its shape conforms to that of their […]

### Second Principle of Thermodynamics theory

Second Principle of Thermodynamics theory Thermodynamics is the branch of physical science concerned with heat and its relation to other forms of energy and work. It defines macroscopic variables (such as temperature, entropy, […]

### First Principle of Thermodynamics theory

First Principle of Thermodynamics theory Thermodynamics is the branch of physical science concerned with heat and its relation to other forms of energy and work; it is studied in processes in which there is […]

### System of ecuations theory II

This theory about system of ecuations is the continue of the previous post “System of ecuations theory” Gauss method: Gauss method is to transform the given system into an equivalent system. To do this […]

### System of ecuations theory

System of Linear Equations Theory: First Degree The simplest method for solving a System linear equations is to repeatedly eliminate variables. Steps to take: 1. In the first equation, solve the equation for a […]

### How to solve an ecuation II

This theory about ecuations is the continue of the previous post “How to solve an ecuation” Theory of Biquadrate Equations. To solve a biquadrate equation follow these steps: If there are parentheses and/or […]

### How to solve an ecuation

Theory of Equations of First Degree To solve a first degree equation follow these steps: If there are parentheses and/or brackets, they are resolved with the necessary operation. If there denominators, it […]

### Chemical calculations theory

Chemical calculations theory. Matter and its transformations. Mole concept: Mol is the amount of substance of a system which contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 0.012 kg of carbon 12. […]

### Chemical bond ionic theory

IONIC BOND (metal-nonmetal): it is formed by complete transfer of electrons from one to the other, being a metal atom and the other a nonmetal atom. Due to the atoms are neutral, when an atom […]

### Chemical bond theory

Chemical bond theory The part of chemistry that studies from the theoretical point of view, the chemical bond and molecular structure, as well as issues related, it is called theory of chemical bonding and valence […]

### Work and Energy theory

Work and Energy theory Energy is the property that bodies have and allows them to make changes in themselves or in other bodies. His unit in the International System is the joule (J). There […]

### Calculation of a limit

Limits theory Finite limit: It is said that the function f(x) has for limit L when “x” moves closer to “a”, and is represented by Infinite limit: PROPERTIES OF LIMITS: THEOREMS: – The […]

### What is an electric field

Electric Field theory The electric field is the region of space in which any cargo located at a point in that region undergoes an action or electrical force due to the presence of a […]

### What is a gravitational field

Gravitational field theory Gravitation, or gravity, is a natural phenomenon by which physical bodies attract with a force proportional to their masses. The gravitational interaction between two bodies can be expressed by a central […]

### How to solve an integral

Integrals theory Given a function f of a real variable x and an interval [a, b] of the real line, the definite integral is defined informally to be the area of the region in […]

### How to solve a derivative

Derivatives theory It is called numerical function to any application of a set E in R For the determination of a function is necessary to know three conditions: The initial set The final set Establish […]

### Calculate the inverse of a matrix

Inverse of a Matrix (Gauss method). Increase the Matrix with an Identity matrix simply writing the rows of the Identity matrix following the rows of the original Matrix. Make the necessary operations on the rows […]